Even in the early years of independence of the Brazilian Empire, the province of Sao Paulo was significant enough to draw American attention. While the still small provincial capital was isolated at the top of the Serra do Mar (mountains of the sea), its port city of Santos was more accessible. The first American Consulate in the future State of Sao Paulo was established in Santos on April 5, 1830 under Consul George Black. (The Santos Consulate was closed September 28, 1963.) With the great coffee boom of the last decades of the 1800’s and new rail connections from Santos into the interior, Sao Paulo City began its explosive expansion. On April 10, 1907 an American resident in Sao Paulo, Albert J. Byington, originally from Kansas, was appointed Consular Agent. (According to his granddaughter, Byington was later the first American to become a Brazilian citizen in Sao Paulo.) Byington resigned January 30, 1908, and was replaced on June 18 th by William W. Lee, a Brazilian citizen who served until March 5, 1914, taking care of consular business from his home in Rua Santo Amaro.